We will begin Civics class with a pretest which will cover the map of the United States. It is important to know the location of different states throughout our country as we study local, state and federal government. It is also important to know the location of states as citizens of the United States. We will also be studying current events which will require our knowledge of the states.
Our class will review the location of the seven continents and four oceans of our world to help us better understand world events as well.
There are a number of good web sites which allow you to not only study the map of United States, but also to print the map.
Below is the basic vocabulary students should know for the first marking period in civics.
Civics Vocabulary, Marking Period 1
- civics- the study of the purpose of government and the responsibilities and duties of citizens. In this class, students learn about different types of government, how they function and how it organizes and enforce laws on its society.
- government- “the institution through which a society makes and enforces it public policies.” There are many different types of governments. There are dictatorships, were on person or a small group have all the power of the society, and there are also democracy, were the power is in the hands of the people.
- freedoms- the citizens’ entitlement to do chose how to live their own lives. Citizens of the United States of America have as much freedom until it effects someone else’s. An example of a freedom is freedom of religion, were a person can choose whatever religion to practice.
- liberty- the power or right to act, believe, and express of a person without commands or demands from another.
bill of rights- the first ten amendments of the United States Constitution that guarantees freedoms and rights of all citizens. For example, it states that all people have freedom of speech, which allows citizens the right to say, write, and publish whatever they want.
- law- a rule that applies to every citizen of a country, which is made by the legislative branch, enforced by the executive branch, and defined by the judicial branch of the government.
- society- made up five basic institution: government, economy, religion, education, and family, organizes a group of people by a common : culture, living environment, or interest.
- jury- a group of citizens that hear evidence and make a verdict based on the allegation on a court case.
- diversity- a society has different ethnicities and races in its population of people.
- citizenship- a relationship between a country and a person that pledges loyalty to a country and fulfills his or her duties and are entitled to rights. The person can be born in the country or naturalized through a process.
- draft- having one or more people compulsory enrolled or enlist in the military.
- register- an official record of names “kept by an official appointed to do so.”
- naturalized citizen- a person that was not born in the country but has become a citizen through a legal process.
- taxes- citizens’ duties to pay the charge by the government on property, which is used for the community and country.
- social contract- an agreement among people that establishes their rights, duties, privileges for each individual fairly. The theory states that free people give up some freedom for protection.
- divine right- the ides that a person royal born was given the right to have all the power and rule by God. People believed that opposing the royal family, was opposing God, and the people would be held for treason and moral sin.
- constitution- a written document that establishes the principles, structures, and processes of a government.
- jury duty- citizens’ duty to serve in a legal court case as juror, which is most of the time not optional.
- census- an official counting of a population that happens every ten years in the United States.
overnor is Dan Malloy
American government, Chapter I Section 1: Government and the State
Introduction: This lesson focuses on the goals of the Federal Government
Activities- Student Participation Objective: Students name three basic kinds of power that a government exercises, discuss the difference between a government and a state, and list the main purposes of the American system of government.
I. Government and the state
A. government – The institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies. (How many institutions make up a society?)
1. Public policies – All of the things a gov. decides to do, i.e. taxation, defense, education, crime control, environment, etc. p. 4
2. Must have power! – ability to achieve a desired end – must be able to prevent or command/demand action;
3. Three basic types of power, set by the Constitution (body of fundamental laws setting up principles, structures, and processes of a gov.)
a. legislative – power to make law and public policy.
b. executive – power to enforce and administer law.
c. judicial – power to determine meaning of laws and settle disputes/arguments within society.
4. You will define dictatorship:
5. Democracy: a government where the ultimate power is held with the people.
6. List important facts from remaining 5 paragraphs on p. 5
– The earliest known evidences of government date from Ancient Egypt, 2,300 years ago
-politics: is the process by which a society decides how power and resources will be
distributed within that society
-Politics is a Process. Government is an Institution.
B. The state – Body of people living in defined territory, organized politically with the power to make and enforce law.
1. Population – must have people!
2. Territory – must have land.
3. Sovereignty – supreme and absolute power within its own territory; responsible for itself, not a colony;
4.Gov. – already defined – see p. 6 & 7
D. Purpose of gov. – (pg’s 8,9, &10)
1. To form a more perfect union
2. Establish justice
3. Insure domestic tranquility -
4. Provide for the common defense -
5. Promote general Welfare –
6.Secure the liberty-
- Civics, 10th GradeChapter 21 section 4
: American citizenship
1. Identify the questions surrounding American citizenship.
2. Describe how people become American citizens by birth and by naturalization.
3. Explain how an American can lose his or her citizenship.
4. Compare and contrast the status of undocumented aliens and legal immigrants.
Anticipatory set -
students discuss whether they have belonged to a club or team that let anyone join and examine how the United States let almost all immigrants into the country for more than 100 years
: This lesson focuses on how American citizenship and naturalization is determined as well as the history and problems of immigration (text, page 613, American Government)
. The 14th Amendment
A. 1868 Civil War is coming, 14th amendment passed (613, American Government, 14th amendment, )
1. A person can become an American citizen either by birth, or by naturalization
2. 90% of Americans are citizens because we were born in the USA, another several million are citizens because:
a. jus soli-the law of the soil where one is born -Congress has
defined the United States to include, for purposes of citizenship, the 50 States,the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana and the Islands. It also includes American embassies and American public vessels abroad.
b. jus sanguinis-law of the blood, to whom one is born-a child born abroad can become an American citizen at birth if he or she born to parent who is US citizen and lived in USA at some time
B. Aliens-citizens or nationals in a foreign country who live in the United States
1. Naturalization-people may become citizens at some time after birth through this legal process
a. Be at least 18 years old
b. Have entered the country legally lived in the United States for at least five years, certain states for at least three months
c. File a petition for naturalization through federal court
d. Be literate in the English language
e. Be of “good moral character”, attached to the principles of the Constitution, and “well disposed to the good order and happiness of the United States”
f. Have a “knowledge and an understanding of the fundamentals of the history, and the principles and form of government, of the United States”
g. Take an oath or affirmation (-what type of oath, what is affirmation?)
2. expatriation-Americans can choose to give up or voluntarily abandon their citizenship (see bottom of page 614, American Government)
a. denaturalization- Naturalized citizens who gained citizenship through fraud or deception may lose it through court ordered process
b. Deportation-a legal process in which aliens are required to leave the United States
Review: students will create a chart/graphic summary of ways of gaining and losing American citizenship using chart on pages 614-616 Of American Government Text,
Homework: 1) students must read and annotate pages 613-618 and their text. 2) key terms and main ideas, page 618, questions 1-4 3) critical thinking, applying text knowledge to today, answer critical thinking questions four & five 4) thought question seven, page 618
Lesson three, civics 10th grade
Review: public policies, 3 kinds of power, dictatorship, democracy, the state, territory, sovereign, government, theories, 6 purposes of gov.
Chapter I Section 2: Forms of Government
Objectives: students will be able to:
1. Classify governments according to three sets of characteristics.
2. Define systems of government based on who can participate.
3. Identify different ways that power can be distributed, geographically, within a state.
4. Describe a government by how power is distributed between the executive and legislative branches.
Anticipatory set - Students examine the relationship between the terms dictatorship and democracy and discuss their importance as two different forms of government.
Introduction – The lesson focuses on the different types of governments.
I. Forms of gov. – Like people, no 2 govs are exactly alike, why?
A. who can participate in the process – number of persons who take part in the process
1. democracy - Q to S: What is democracy? People hold supreme political authority and the gov. is run only by and with the agreement of the people; p. 12; go to the Internet Gore versus Bush results, put popular vote results on board then, Q to S: Why wasn’t Gore elected president if he received more votes than Bush?
a. direct democracy (pure democracy) – the will of the people becomes law; straight from the people; T&S read p. 13. Parag. 1; see picture p. 13, S ask Qs;
b. representative democracy – a small grp are chosen by the people to carry out the will of the people (kept in check by elections and attentive citizens);
2. dictatorship – those who rule Are NOT responsible to the will of the people
a. autocracy – one person has unlimited political power
b. oligarchy – power to rule held by small grp, of people who usually appointed themselves! T to S: give examples-Soviet Union, Hitler, Cuba; give students terms on bd: unitary, federal, confederate, presidential, parliamentary, dictatorship, democracy; Q to S: which 3 describe US Gov? What does each mean? Explain Federal, State, & Local Gov.
B. Geographic distribution of gov. power within the state – every system of gov. has power to govern in 1 or more places geographically; 3 basic forms textbook page 14
1. unitary -centralized–all powers held by the gov. belong to a single central agency. Usually central gov. creates local units of gov. for it’s own convenience (Central gov. could get rid of local units).
2. federal – powers of gov. are divided between central gov, and several local govs. This division of power CANNOT be changed by the local or national level acting alone. (Our Constitution sets this up).
3. Confederate – An alliance (Q to S: What is an alliance?) of independent states. The central organization with confederate only handles issues member states ASSIGN to it.
C. Relationship between legislative and executive branches – govs. often classified by relationship between leg. and exec; 2 forms
1. presidential – legislative and executive branches separate but equal; President and legislature chosen by the people at different times for different terms; checks and balances Q to S What does this mean?
2. parliamentary – executive made up of prime minister or premier and the official’s cabinet which come from the legislative branch (parliament); Legi slature or parliament choses the executive. T&S read p. 16; research-which countries have parliamentarian gov, and who are the prime ministers of each? Use internet; determine which regions have democracies present and if there are any visible patterns of government shown. They offer historical and geographical reasons for these patterns.
Our next lessonWill be coveringThe three levels of government, State local and federal
We began by creating a WebTo explain the local level of government
-executive branch =Headed by Mayor Who serves a four-year termAnd may runMultiple times, He or sheIs elected byPopular vote. The Mayor appointscommissioners,police, fireDepartment of healthfor example
-Legislative branch =In Bridgeport we haveThe city CouncilWith 20 membersWho serve two-year termsIn May run multiple times The council membersAre votedFor by the people of their District
-judicial branch =Bridgeport has city courts With judges andThe judicial branch alsoGives public defenders to thoseWho cannot afford a lawyer